Towards the harmonization of national controls on nuclear exports?

Milagros Álvarez Verdugo

Taking into account the UN Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004) and the Recommendations adopted by the 2010 NPT Review Conference, the guidelines agreed to by the Zangger Committee and the Nuclear Suppliers Group have become a universal standard for national measures governing nuclear export controls. However, these guidelines have a very limited impact on the harmonization of national controls, given the vague and imprecise nature of many of their provisions and the high degree of discretion afforded the States in their application. Indeed, the universal application of these guidelines makes no significant contribution to constructing a coherent network of national control measures on nuclear exports and there is even a danger that they could weaken the role assigned to the competent international organizations in the field. The objectives of non-proliferation as well as trade security justify the consideration of a change in the approach taken in the regulation of nuclear export controls. This change, we believe, should allow a shift from a system centred on the limitation of nuclear goods supply to one centred on the effective control of nuclear activities carried out within States.

1. INTRODUCCIÓN.—2. EL CONTROL DE LAS EXPORTACIONES NUCLEARES DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA DEL TNP.—2.1. Las condiciones a la exportación nuclear inscritas en el TNP.—2.2. Las condiciones establecidas en los acuerdos de salvaguardia requeridos por el TNP.—2.3. Caracterización del sistema de control de las exportaciones nucleares articulado por el TNP.—3. EL «DESARROLLO» DE LAS DISPOSICIONES DEL TNP: LAS DIRECTRICES ACORDADAS POR EL COMITÉ ZANGGER.—4. LOS CONTROLES A LA EXPORTACIÓN ACORDADOS POR EL GRUPO DE SUMINISTRADORES NUCLEARES.—4.1. La exportación de materiales, equipos y tecnologías nucleares.—4.1.1. Objeto de control.—4.1.2. Condiciones a la exportación.—4.1.3. Excepciones.—4.2. La exportación de bienes de doble uso.— 4.2.1. Objeto de control.—4.2.2. Condiciones a la exportación.—5. CONSIDERACIONES FINALES.

dual-use goods; harmonization; NPT; nuclear energy; nuclear exports;

REDI Vol. LXIV 2 2012



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