MIGRATIONS AND ASYLUM: ANALYSIS AND PERSPECTIVES: The human right to leave a country, including one’s own: exceptions to the rule

Author:
Teresa Fajardo del Castillo
Profesora Titular Derecho Internacional Público, Universidad de Granada (Tenured Professor International Law, University of Granada. Spain).fajardo@ugr.es.

Abstract:
The right to leave a country, including one’s own, is enshrined in Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Article 12 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. It is also incorporated in Article 2 of Protocol 4 to the European Convention

on Human Rights. This right is marked both by its nature as a human right necessary for the enjoyment of rights such as the right to seek asylum or refuge, and by the restrictions that states may impose on it for reasons of security, public order and migration control. However, the right to leave a country does not constitute a sufficient legal entitlement for the choice of the country of destination. Its broad conception when it was first formulated is now limited by the establishment of exceptions and restrictions that restrict its scope as a consequence of migration policies in which potential destination countries have collaborated with countries of origin and transit to contain or prevent the departure of persons without legal qualifications to migrate regularly. The number of restrictions is such that it is reasonable to wonder whether the exceptions to the rule have diminished its content and applicability.

Index:
1. INTRODUCCIÓN.—2. PRINCIPALES INSTRUMENTOS UNIVERSALES Y REGIONALES QUE RECONOCEN EL DERECHO A ABANDONAR UN PAÍS.—2.1. Instrumentos jurídicos universales.—2.2. El Convenio Europeo de Derechos Humanos y Libertades Fundamentales y su Protocolo 4.—2.3. El Objetivo 2 del Pacto Mundial por una Migración Segura, Ordenada y Regular: ≪Minimizar los factores adversos y estructurales que obligan a las personas a abandonar su país de origen≫.—3. EL PAPEL DE LA UNIÓN EUROPEA EN LA CRECIENTE LIMITACIÓN DEL DERECHO A ABANDONAR UN PAÍS.—3.1. La UE y la construcción de fronteras para impedir la salida de los países de origen y de tránsito.— 3.2. Las excepciones y restricciones justificadas por la lucha contra la inmigración ilegal, la trata de seres humanos y el crimen organizado.—4. CONCLUSIONES.

Keywords:
Council of Europe; derechos humanos; European Union; exceptions; human rights; restrictions; right to leave a country; soft law; United Nations;

Issue:
REDI Vol. 73 2 2021

Section:
Studies

Pages:
85-100

DOI:
http://dx.doi.org/10.17103/redi.73.2.2021.1a.05

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