MIGRATIONS AND ASYLUM: ANALYSIS AND PERSPECTIVES. The European Union, a gendarme in the Central Mediterranean?: Operations EUNAVFOR MED Sophia and Irini

Carolina Soler García

The EU launched Operation Sophia in March 2015, under the Common Security and Defence Policy, to help disrupt the business model of smuggling and human trafficking networks operating in Libya. In addition, the training of the Libyan Coast Guard and Navy was supported, and the arms embargo on Libya decided by the Security Council was implemented. In March 2020, Sophia was terminated and Operation Irini was launched. Its main objective is to enforce the arms embargo on Libya and, secondarily, to fight migrant smuggling and trafficking networks, as well as to train Libyan coastguards. The development of these operations has been heavily conditioned, firstly, by the lack of authorization from both the Security Council and the Libyan authorities to carry out their respective mandates on Libyan territory. Secondly, because of the absence of an agreement between Member States on the place of disembarkation of migrants rescued at sea. Moreover some controversy has arisen in the course of these operations over respect for human rights. Despite these obvious limitations, the EU has become the main international actor responsible for the implementation of Security Council resolutions in the Central Mediterranean.

1. INTRODUCCIÓN.—2. LA LUCHA CONTRA LAS MAFIAS DE LA INMIGRACIÓN Y EL SALVAMENTO EN EL MEDITERRÁNEO CENTRAL.—2.1. La lucha contra el modelo de negocio de las redes de tráfico ilícito y trata de personas.—2.2. El salvamento de personas en peligro en el mar.—2.3. El desembarco de inmigrantes y las posibles vulneraciones de sus derechos humanos.—3. LA FORMACIÓN DE LA GUARDIA COSTERA Y DE LA ARMADA LIBIAS.—4. LA APLICACIÓN DEL EMBARGO DE ARMAS DE NACIONES UNIDAS A LIBIA.— 5. CONSIDERACIONES FINALES

Central Mediterranean; Common Security and Defence Policy; derechos humanos; European Union; human rights; Irini; Libya; Sophia;

REDI Vol. 74 1 2022




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